Koy Sanjaq (KS): The language of Jews out of Koy Sanjaq, citizen because from the 1951 inside the Israel

Advice comes from Robert Hoberman (personal correspondence). This appears to be broadly associate of Jewish languages away from a number of other metropolises regarding the region as well, plus Aqra and you may Rawanduz.

Yet not, contained in this dialect you will find a highly unusual changes from h so you’re able to h about 3rd individual only 1 possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’

Azerbaijan (Azer): The text of Jews from Iranian Azerbaijan, also teams from inside the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you can Yuksekova. Data is of Garbell (1965).

Halabja (Hala): The words of one’s Jews away from Halabja toward Iran-Iraq edging. This is very nearby the Jewish dialects of your own other cities of the area, and additionally Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you will Panjwin. Pointers is inspired by my personal cards.

We’re going to compare these dialects regarding twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and you will lexical requirements. Adopting the Hetzron (1976, 98), you will find chose just designs as criteria to possess group. I have selected a beneficial disproportionate number of morphological standards, and we shall let them have special pounds, again following the Hetzron, but most other shared designs could well be considered as better.

Notice along with the more complicated conservation and even installation off when you look at the Koy Sanjaq advertised because of the Hoberman (1985)

Once we examine this new languages of NENA we shall you will need to dictate this new the amount that the newest dialects share a definite trend which is different from Turoyo and Mandaic. Meanwhile, we’ll find bundles off isoglosses contained in this NENA.

(1) Worry may be penultimate in every the NA languages, as well as Turoyo and you can Mandaic yet not regarding about three easternmost Jewish languages, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you will Halabja, which will fret the last syllable. Such dialects look, such as this, such as a lot more (Garbell 1965), to show an unusually good influence away from Kurdish.

(2) All NENA languages enjoys combined h and you can x. Inside Hertevin the result is h, and you will almost everywhere more it is x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you can dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you can +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox 1992, 55).(4)

Both Turoyo and Mandaic retain separate h and you may x. Some NENA dialects possess reintroduced h due to the fact a borrowing away from Kurdish or Arabic or out of Traditional Syriac or Hebrew.(5) not, the new passed down words continuously suggests x. Such as for example, during the Tisqopa there are borrowed Arabic conditions, for example sahabi ‘friend’, having h, but passed down terminology including laxma ‘bread’ constantly reveal x. (6)

(3) The NENA dialects but Hertevin and you can Zakho have forfeit extremely period away from passed on. Such as for instance, in the Aradhin we find arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ equal to Syriac arb an effective and you will afra. In Hertevin plus in Zakho, passed down was frequently ?: Hertevin thus?a beneficial ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?los angeles ‘she heard’ (Meehan and Alon 1979, 189). In several other languages most are kept as the ?, and you may, on others, is gone entirely. Certain languages has actually reintroduced borrowed out-of Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Instance, Halabja features ayza ‘good’.

(4) Into the prior to dialects away from Aramaic, as with Tiberian Hebrew, t turned into [Theta] immediately following a great vowel. Which alternation might have been lexicalized in NENA, having both t or [Theta] distribute using whole paradigms, whether preceded by the a vowel or otherwise not. Such as, inside Aradhin the new verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, and in addition [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). Subsequent, in a number of dialects brand new phoneme [Theta] has actually gone through extra changes. In a number of dialects [Theta] has matched back to t, plus in others it has become s if not l.(7) In one dialect, Jilu, it is h following started removed except on beginning of a phrase. The three easternmost Jewish dialects express the latest stunning change regarding [Theta] to at least one. The outcomes of these changes is visible on keyword ‘house’ hence appears in numerous languages while the end up being:[Theta great]a (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you may besa (Sanandaj Religious).

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